Solar Power Systems
Components of a solar photovoltaic system
Photovoltaic power generation is based on the principle of photovoltaic effect, using solar cells to directly convert light energy into electrical energy. Whether it is off-grid power generation or grid-connected power generation, the solar photovoltaic power generation system is mainly composed of three parts: solar modules, solar controllers and inverters. Off-grid power generation also requires batteries to store excess power for insufficient light or night use. . They are mainly composed of electronic components and do not involve mechanical parts. Therefore, photovoltaic power generation equipment is extremely refined, reliable, stable, long-lived, and easy to install and maintain.

Photovoltaic module: It is composed of photovoltaic cell components in series and parallel according to the system requirements, and converts the solar energy into electrical energy output under the illumination of sunlight. It is the core component of the solar photovoltaic system.

Storage battery: store the electrical energy generated by the solar cell components, and release the stored electrical energy to meet the energy demand of the load when the light is insufficient or at night, or when the load demand is greater than the electricity generated by the solar cell components. It is the storage battery of the solar photovoltaic system. capable parts. At present, lead-acid batteries are commonly used in solar photovoltaic systems. For systems with higher requirements, deep-discharge valve-regulated sealed lead-acid batteries, deep-discharge liquid-absorbing lead-acid batteries, etc. are usually used.

Controller: It regulates and controls the charging and discharging conditions of the battery, and controls the power output of the solar cell components and the battery to the load according to the power demand of the load. It is the core control part of the entire system. With the development of the solar photovoltaic industry, the functions of the controller are becoming more and more powerful, and there is a tendency to integrate the traditional control part, inverter and monitoring system.

Inverter: In the solar photovoltaic power supply system, if there is an AC load, an inverter device is used to convert the DC power generated by the solar cell module or the DC power released by the battery into the AC power required by the load.

The basic working principle of the solar photovoltaic power supply system is to charge the battery with the electric energy generated by the solar cell module through the control of the controller under the irradiation of sunlight, or directly supply power to the load when the load demand is met. Then, the battery supplies power to the DC load under the control of the controller. For a photovoltaic system containing an AC load, an inverter needs to be added to convert the DC power into an AC power.
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